The human earlobe is composed of tough areolar and adipose connective tissues, lacking the firmness and elasticity of the rest of the auricle (the external structure of the ear). In some cases the lower lobe is connected to the side of the face. Since the earlobe does not contain cartilage it has a large blood supply and may help to warm the ears and maintain balance. However, earlobes are not generally considered to have any major biological function. The earlobe contains many nerve endings, and for some people is an erogenous zone.

Piercing the earlobes is a commonplace activity in many cultures in many historical eras; no other location on the body is as commonly pierced. Consequently, injury to the earlobe due to the weight of heavy earrings is also common.

There are many causes of split earlobes and widened ear piercing holes. Split earlobes are often caused by trauma, which may occur if earrings are pulled through the piercing hole. Additionally, wearing earrings — especially heavy earrings — can lengthen the piercing hole and eventually pull through over time. People with thin earlobes are predisposed to this occurring.

In order to correct a split earlobe, a widened piercing hole or a stretched ear piercing, a surgical procedure is necessary. Plastic surgeons, ENT specialists and dermatologic surgeons are among the physicians that can perform these procedures. First, the area will be cleaned with an antiseptic. In order to numb the area, local anesthesia is injected into or around the area that will be fixed. A small amount of skin surrounding the split or widened hole is cut out and then restitched back together.

Your physician will review proper post-procedure wound care. Usually, the wound must be kept dry for 24 to 48 hours after the procedure. Once that period of time has passed, daily wound care may be recommended. Your physician may recommend applying an ointment to the area as well.


Moles, medically known as nevi, are clusters of pigmented cells that appear as small, dark spots on the skin, and can vary greatly in size and color. Moles typically appear on the face, arms, legs, and torso, but can develop anywhere on the body. Although most skin moles are harmless, in rare cases they can become precancerous, necessitating surgical removal. Some patients also opt to remove benign moles for cosmetic reasons using surgical, laser, or natural mole removal.

Although mole removal is crucial for patients who have developed melanoma, many patients choose to have their skin moles removed as a precautionary measure, or because they dislike the mole’s appearance. For patients with cancerous moles, surgery is the only effective method of removal. For those who want their moles removed for cosmetic reasons, surgical, laser, and natural mole removal are usually good options.

Mole Removal Surgery

There are three methods used for surgical mole removal: shave excision, punch biopsy, and excisional surgery. Shave excision is used for moles that are raised above the skin. In the shave procedure, your doctor will apply a local anesthetic to the area surrounding the mole and use a small, sharp scalpel to shave down the surface of the mole so that it is flush with the surrounding skin. The punch biopsy technique, usually used for smaller skin moles, involves using a special device to “punch out” a cylinder-shaped piece of skin. Skin moles that are flat or malignant are usually removed with excisional surgery, wherein the surgeon cuts the mole out entirely and closes the wound with stitches.

Laser Mole Removal

Laser mole removal is best for moles that are flat and brown or black in color. Full removal of the mole usually requires one to three trips to a physician or dermatologist’s office, where he or she will apply a local anesthetic and use a laser to remove the mole tissue. Generally, laser mole removal is not appropriate for very large moles or moles that protrude above the skin.


Phimosis is a condition in which the foreskin of the penis cannot be pulled back past the glans. A balloon-like swelling under the foreskin may occur with urination. In teenagers and adults, it may result in pain during an erection, but is otherwise not painful. Those affected are at greater risk of inflammation of the glans, known as balanitis, and other complications.

In young children, it is normal to not be able to pull back the foreskin. In more than 90% of cases, this inability resolves by the age of seven, and in 99% of cases by age 16. Occasionally, phimosis may be caused by an underlying condition such as scarring due to balanitis or balanitis xerotica obliterans. This can typically be diagnosed by seeing scarring of the opening of the foreskin.

Typically, it resolves without treatment by the age of three. Efforts to pull back the foreskin during the early years of a young male’s life should not be attempted. For those in whom the condition does not improve further time can be given or a steroid cream may be used to attempt to loosen the tight skin. If this method, combined with stretching exercises, is not effective, then other treatments such as circumcision may be recommended.A potential complication of phimosis is paraphimosis, where the tight foreskin becomes trapped behind the glans.


There are three mechanical conditions that prevent foreskin retraction:  The tip of the foreskin is too narrow to pass over the glans penis. This is normal in children and adolescents.  The inner surface of the foreskin is fused with the glans penis. This is normal in children and adolescents, but abnormal in adults.  The frenulum is too short to allow complete retraction of the foreskin.


Physiologic phimosis, common in males 10 years of age and younger, is normal, and does not require intervention. Non-retractile foreskin usually becomes retractable during the course of puberty.

If phimosis in older children or adults is not causing acute and severe problems, nonsurgical measures may be effective. Choice of treatment is often determined by whether circumcision is viewed as an option of last resort to be avoided or as the preferred course.

Prognosis The most acute complication is paraphimosis. In this condition, the glans is swollen and painful, and the foreskin is immobilized by the swelling in a partially retracted position. The proximal penis is flaccid. Some studies found phimosis to be a risk factor for urinary retention and carcinoma of the penis.

If you have phimosis, you are more likely to get penile cancer. If left untreated, it can lead to increased swelling, and in extreme cases, gangrene, and eventually the loss of your penis.


In most cases, these penis disorders are easy to prevent. The head and the foreskin need to be washed and dried regularly. Be gentle with the skin if you pull it back, and don’t forget to put it back in place when you finish.

If you have either of these conditions, consider getting circumcised to stop it from happening again.